They were later dubbed 'pixies'. Blue jets are beams of blue light propagating from the tops of active thunderclouds up to altitudes of ∼50 km. Walter A. Lyons and Michey D. Schmidt (2003). Transient luminous events have also been observed in far-ultraviolet images of Jupiter's upper atmosphere, high above the altitude of lightning-producing water clouds.[1][2]. The preferred usage is transient luminous event (TLE), because the various types of electrical-discharge phenomena in the upper atmosphere lack several characteristics of the more familiar tropospheric lightning. Blue jets occur much less frequently than sprites. Blue starters are considered to be a weaker form of blue jets. [9] Sprites have been held responsible for otherwise unexplained accidents involving high altitude vehicular operations above thunderstorms.[10]. See also. ", "UPWARD ELECTRICAL DISCHARGES FROM THUNDERSTORM TOPS", Homepage of the Eurosprite campaign, itself part of the CAL (Coupled Atmospheric Layers) research group, March 2, 1999, University of Houston: UH Physicists Pursue Lightning-Like Mysteries, Ground and Balloon-Borne Observations of Sprites and Jets, Sprites and ELVES : Lightning's strange cousins flicker faster than light itself, Sprites, jets and TLE pictures and articles, High speed video (10,000 frame/s) taken by Hans Stenbaek-Nielsen, University of Alaska, NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day: Gigantic Jets Over Oklahoma (August 29, 2007). The jet was initially observed to be traveling up at around 50,000 m/s (110,000 mph; 180,000 km/h) at a speed similar to typical lightning, increased to 160,000 and 270,000 m/s (360,000–600,000 mph; 580,000–970,000 km/h), but then split in two and sped upward with speeds of at least 2,000,000 m/s (4,500,000 mph; 7,200,000 km/h) to the ionosphere where it then spread out in a bright burst of light. [6] The phenomena were named after the mischievous sprite, e.g., Shakespeare's Ariel or Puck,[7] and is also an acronym for Stratospheric/mesospheric Perturbations Resulting from Intense Thunderstorm Electrification. In a similar process to how blue jets form, the higher charge region is discharged by the leader network before the same occurs in the lower charge region, and one end of the leader network propagates upward from the cloud toward the ionosphere. They are not related to lightning.[27]. Sprites are flashes of bright red light that occur above storm systems. Although jets are considered to be a type of upper-atmospheric lightning, it has been found that they are components of tropospheric lightning and a type of cloud-to-air discharge that initiates within a thunderstorm and travel upwards. A series of unusual, white luminous events atop the thunderstorm were observed over a 20-minute period, lasting for an average of 16 milliseconds each. They are not connected to lightning strikes. A team of researchers at Arecibo captured video evidence from the ground of this lightning phenomenon known as blue jet. ELVES (Emission of Light and Very Low Frequency perturbations due to Electromagnetic Pulse Sources) often appear as a dim, flattened, expanding glow around 400 km (250 mi) in diameter that lasts for, typically, just one millisecond. [citation needed], On August 13, 2016, photographer Phebe Pan caught a clear wide-angle photo of a gigantic jet on a wide-angle lens while shooting Perseid meteors atop Shi Keng Kong peak in Guangdong province [21] and Li Hualong captured the same jet from a more distant location in Jiahe, Hunan, China. [14] That ELVES was discovered in the Shuttle Video by the Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE) team at Marshall Space Flight Center, AL led by the Principal Investigator, Otha H."Skeet" Vaughan, Jr. ELVES is a whimsical acronym for Emissions of Light and Very Low Frequency Perturbations due to Electromagnetic Pulse Sources. Gigantic jets reach higher altitudes than blue jets, and the upper portion of the jet changes color from blue to red. Ghosts (Green emissions from excited Oxygen in Sprite Tops) are faint, green glows that appear after red sprites, fading away in milliseconds. [20], On February 2, 2014, the Oro Verde Observatory of Argentina reported ten or more gigantic jet events observed over a thunderstorm in Entre Ríos south. Lightning phenomena: sprites, elves and blue jets There are different types of lightning (or electrical discharges) that occur well above the realm of the thunderstorms that we experience in the troposphere (the lowest layer of earth’s atmosphere as it runs as high as about 17 km above earth’s surface). The attribution of the accident to a sprite was made retroactively, since this term was not coined until late 1993. Upper-atmospheric lightning (includes Blue Jets) Aurora (astronomy) They are similar to jets. Scientists do not yet know if this is a new phenomenon. (Date of Image: Unknown), Credit: Victor Pasko, Penn State University. They resemble tall trees with quasi-vertical trunk and filamentary branches. In rund 40 km Höhe entstehen auf ähnliche Weise auch weiß-bläuliche, stichflammenähnliche Entladungen, „Blue Jets“ (dt. "GJ event that was clearly recorded in eastern China (storm center located at 35.6°N,119.8°E, near the Huanghai Sea)". According to Sunanda Basu, a program director in NSF's Division of Atmospheric Sciences (which funded the research), the video is the first ground-based evidence of a direct electrical discharge from a thundercloud top to the lower edge of the Earth's ionosphere. This is the first image ever captured of blue jet lightning. On September 14, 2001, scientists at the Arecibo Observatory photographed a gigantic jet—double the height of those previously observed—reaching around 70 km (45 mi) into the atmosphere. This is the first image ever captured of blue jet lightning. Blue jet lightning. Sie ragen bis zu 25 km in die Höhe, bevor sie sich auflösen. Upper-atmospheric lightning is believed to be electrically induced forms of luminous plasma. [27][28], Pixies were first observed during the STEPS program during the summer of 2000, a multi-organizational field program investigating the electrical characteristics over thunderstorms on the High Plains. Only then does a brilliant white lightning leader crawl slowly from the top of the cloud, reaching about 10% of the height of the gigantic jet before fading. They are less than 100 meters across. Unsere Redakteure begrüßen Sie zu Hause auf unserem Testportal. Wilson predicted that electrical breakdown should occur in the atmosphere high above large thunderstorms. The color is believed to be due to a set of blue and near-ultraviolet emission lines from neutral and ionized molecular nitrogen. In the 1920s, the Scottish physicist C.T.R. Other types of TLEs include sprite halos, ghosts, blue jets, gigantic jets, pixies, gnomes, trolls, blue starters, and ELVESs. The positive end of the leader network fills the negative charge region before the negative end fills the positive charge region, and the positive leader subsequently exits the cloud and propagates upward. Their color was a puzzle for some time, but is now believed to be a red hue. They appear blue to the naked eye, can last for up to several hundreds of milliseconds and are cone-shaped. Um bestimmt davon ausgehen zu können, dass die Auswirkung von Blue jet lightning tatsächlich nützlich ist, müssen Sie sich die Ergebnisse und Meinungen zufriedener Leute im Internet anschauen.Es gibt unglücklicherweise nur ziemlich wenige klinische Tests dazu, da diese ungemein kostspielig sind und üblicherweise nur Medikamente umfassen. On October 21, 1989 TLE'S were recorded during the Shuttle orbits 44 and 45. TLEs have been captured by a variety of optical recording systems, with the total number of recent recorded events (early 2009) estimated at many tens-of-thousands. [26] This refers to the process by which the light is generated; the excitation of nitrogen molecules due to electron collisions (the electrons possibly having been energized by the electromagnetic pulse caused by a discharge from an underlying thunderstorm). A smaller variation of blue jets are On November 10, 2012, the Chinese Science Bulletin reported a gigantic jet event observed over a thunderstorm in mainland China on August 12, 2010. On July 22, 2002, five gigantic jets between 60 and 70 kilometres (35 and 45 mi) in length were observed over the South China Sea from Taiwan, reported in Nature. [18][19] The jets lasted under a second, with shapes likened by the researchers to giant trees and carrots. The discovery is the first ground-based evidence linking the ionosphere with cloud tops in blue jet events. „blaue Strahlen“), die Zehntelsekunden dauern und im Bereich der Stratosphäre aus der Wolkenoberdecke regelrecht herausspringen. [12], Blue starters were discovered on video from a night time research flight around thunderstorms[13] and appear to be "an upward moving luminous phenomenon closely related to blue jets. Huge Mystery Flashes Seen In Outer Atmosphere, http://webarchive.loc.gov/all/20020914103454/http://elf.gi.alaska.edu/, The Endless, Short film inspired by Sprite, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Upper-atmospheric_lightning&oldid=1001571655, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 January 2021, at 08:06. [15] "Blue starters appear to be blue jets that never quite make it," according to Dr. Victor P. Pasko, associate professor of electrical engineering.[16]. When reviewing the video taken, two finger-like vertical images appeared in two frames of the film. They last for only a few microseconds. P1.39 The Discovery of Red Sprites as an Opportunity For Informal Science Education. There are several types of TLEs, the most common being sprites. Blue jets: project directly from the top of the thunderstorm in a narrow cone jet up to approximately 50 km altitude. They were first recorded on October 21, 1989, on a monochrome video of a thunderstorm on the horizon taken from the Space Shuttle as it passed over Australia. Several years later, the optical signatures of these events were named 'sprites' by researchers to avoid inadvertently implying physical properties that were, at the time, still unknown. [11] They are also brighter than sprites and, as implied by their name, are blue in color. [31], Rare transient luminous events that occurs over tops of thunder storms, C. T. R. Wilson (1924) "The electric field of a thundercloud and some of its effects,", Earle R. Williams (November 2001) "Sprites, elves, and glow discharge tubes,". 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